Gross-Motor Development


Gross motor skills involve the larger muscles in the arms, legs and torso. Gross motor activities include walking, running, throwing, lifting, kicking, etc. These skills also relate to body awareness, reaction speed, balance and strength. Here are general guidelines for gross motor development for children ages 0 to 5 years.


3-4 months

  • Can raise head when pulled to sitting position

4 months

  • Rolls from back to side

5 months

  • Rolls from back to front

6 months

  • Can raise chest and upper part of abdomen (when on stomach)

7 months

  • Can bear weight on one hand while exploring with the other hand (when on stomach)

6-7 months

  • Sits alone

8-10 months

  • Crawls

10-11 months

  • Cruises around furniture

9-12 months

  • Reaches actively for toy (when in sitting position)

11-12 months

  • Pulls to a standing position

15 months

  • Walks alone well

  • Squats and stands back up

  • Walks up and down steps holding hand

18 months

  • Can run, though falls easily

2 years

  • Walks and runs fairly well

  • Can jump with both feet

  • Can climb stairs without support

  • Can kick a ball

3 years

  • Can balance on one foot for a few seconds

  • Can broad jump 10-24 inches

  • Can catch a large ball

  By 4 years

  • Can run, jump and climb well, is beginning to skip

  • Hops proficiently on one foot

  • Catches a ball reliably

  • Can ride a tricycle

  • Begins somersaults

By 5 years

  • Can skip on alternate feet and jump rope

  • Beginning to skate and swim

  • Climbing well



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